High energy photons used to expose photoresists in extreme ultraviolet lithography (92 eV, 13.5 nm) photoexcite electrons from Mo/Si multilayer mirror surfaces. Photoemitted electrons participate in the formation of carbonaceous residues on the mirror surface significantly affecting the mirror reflectivity. We explore mitigation strategies utilizing TiO2(110) as a model for the capping layer. Two carbon containing surfaces are examined; an ordered catechol monolayer and a carbonaceous layer. Excimer laser sources (XeF and KrF) coupled with oxidizing gas backgrounds (NO and O2) are shown to be effective for the photocatalytic removal of carbon. Utilizing x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy carbon removal is shown to proceed through oxidation of the overlayer.
Reprints available from U. Diebold (diebold).
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