Density-functional calculations for the (0001)-Zn surface of wurtzite ZnO are reported. Different stabilization mechanisms, such as metallization of the surface layer, adsorption of OH groups or O adatoms, the formation of Zn vacancies, and large scale triangular reconstructions are considered. The calculations indicate that isolated Zn vacancies or O adatoms are unfavorable compared to triangular reconstructions. In the absence of hydrogen, these triangular features are stable under any realistic temperature and pressure. When hydrogen is present, the reconstruction is lifted, and hydroxyl groups stabilize the ideal otherwise unreconstructed surface. The transition between the unreconstructed hydroxyl covered surface and the triangular shaped features occurs abruptly; OH groups lift the reconstruction, but their adsorption is energetically unfavorable on the triangularly reconstructed surface.
Corresponding author: Ulrike Diebold (diebold).
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