The oxidation of Pd(111) leads to an incommensurate surface oxide, which was studied by the use of scanning tunneling microscopy, surface x-ray diffraction, high resolution core level spectroscopy and density functional calculations. A combination of these methods reveals a two-dimensional structure having no resemblance to bulk oxides of Pd. Our study also demonstrates how the atomic arrangement of a non-trivial incommensurate surface can be solved by molecular dynamics in a case where experimental techniques alone give no solution.
Corresponding author: E. Lundgren. Reprints also available from M. Schmid (schmid).
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